In classical music, a string quartet consists of two violinists, one viola player and one cellist.
Answer: "A Life for the Tsar"
Originally entitled "Ivan Susanin", Mikhail Glinka renamed the first of his two most-famous operas to "A Life for the Tsar" (1836) as a show of favor to Emperor Nicholas I who monitored the work while it was in progress and is said to have actually suggested the name change.
Answer: String Quartet No. 14
Franz Schubert considered Beethoven's String Quartet No. 14 the ultimate composition. As such, shortly before his death he requested his own string quartet play the piece for him.
Answer: Johann Sebastian Bach
In 1736, Johann Sebastian Back was appointed "Royal Court Composer" by King Augustus III, with that entitlement greatly increasing his public recognition.
The history of classical music is filled with virtuosos and geniuses but none perhaps moreso than Mozart. For instance, he wrote his "Symphony No. 1" at eight years old. Also, during his relatively short life (1756-1791), he composed in excess of 600 pieces - many more than some other great composers who lived much longer.
Answer: Symphony No. 5
Beethoven's Symphony No. 5, perhaps his best known work, has come to be known as the "Victory Symphony" due to its usage during the Allied Forces' "V for Victory" campaign during World War II.
Singspiel is an opera form that originated circa the early 17th century. Renowned German composer Johann Adam Hiller is considered to be the orignator of this art form.
Answer: Scarlet Fever
"Kindertotenlieder" is actually a collection of 428 poems by German poet Friedrich Rückert and later compiled by Gustav Mahler, which the former wrote in 1833-34 after losing two of his children to scarlet fever.
Answer: Lorenzo Da Ponte
Lorenzo Da Ponte (1749-1838), who in addition to being an opera librettist was also a poet and Catholic priest, assisted Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in bringing forth the classic "Don Giovanni".
Answer: Clement XIV
At 14 years of age, Mozart was able to transcribe, completely from memory, a liturgical composition after hearing it just once. For this amazing musical feat, he was knighted and awarded the Order of the Golden Spur by Pope Clement XIV himself.